| Federative Kingdom of Antarctica
República Federativa do Antarctica
República Federativa do Antarctica
|Motto: "True Freedom Stars Here,True Freedom Stars Here"|
|Anthem: Theme To Independnce Day Theme To Independnce Day|
|Largest City.||Atlantic City|
|Recognized regional languages||Antar|
| Federative Kingdom|
-Federative Kingdom of Antarctica
July 4, 1913
14,000,000 km2 including Ice sheet
12,000,000 km2 real area
- 2009 census
- Per capita
| 2009 estimate|
- Per capita
| $8.423 trillion|
|HDI (2009)||0.903(high) (28th)|
|Currency||Antarctic Dollar (€)(EVD)(EV€)|
|Drives on the||Right|
|Internet TLD||.ev .evt .uev .gov .edu .mil|
|Calling code||+1 & +52|
Antarctica is most southern country in the world and second world power after United States of America . Antarctica is most ice and taiga on coasts of country and forests is about of 7% of territory and lakes and river is about 20% . Antarctica is world second country by area with 14,000,000 km2 and third by poupulation of 316,000,000 peoples . Antarctica is alko second world economy with total GDP of 8.643 trillion and have second biggest millitary budget of 450 billions dollars . Today Antarctican economy is most based on mine produced 30% of GDP and industry 50% and very small tourism procent of 1% . Antarctica is also biggest nuclaer weapon country in the world with nuclear arsenal like Russian and US together . Antarctica is also coldest country in the world with average temperatur of -5 celzius . Antarctica is also founder of UNTO most concurent alliance of NATO . Today Antactica controleled African and South American economy and 16 countries owe about 100 billions dollars to Antarctica and have big contorl of their economies and politics also in that sitation is New Zeeland who owe about 7 billions dollars and have big pressure to get in UNTO and South Union . Antarctica is also world biggest produced of oil with produced ow 18,000 bbl per year and consumed 21,000 bbl import also from Nigeria, Gabon and Venezuela . Antarctica have world 30% mines reservs and produced world 20% of all world mines produce and employye in that sector of mining about 50 millions peoples . Antarctica is also with USA and Russia biggest Air Space power and planned to built Space station of 2012 . This country have about 20% growth of economy per year and immigrations of 20 millions .
Belief in the existence of a Terra Australis — a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa — had existed since the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD), who suggested the idea to preserve the symmetry of all known landmasses in the world. Depictions of a large southern landmass were common in maps such as the early 16th century Turkish Piri Reis map. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. European maps continued to show this hypothetical land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774. Cook in fact came within about 75 miles (121 km) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773. The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals. According to various organizations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, and other sources), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut). Von Bellingshausen saw Antarctica on 27 January 1820, three days before Bransfield sighted land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. On that day the two-ship expedition led by Von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev reached a point within 32 kilometers (20 mi) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice fields there. The first documented landing on mainland Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis in West Antarctica on 7 February 1821, although some historians dispute this claim.
In December, 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy (sometimes called the "Ex. Ex.", or "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands". That part of Antarctica was later named "Wilkes Land", a name it maintains to this day.
Soviet Influence Post War Period(1958-1990)Уреди
After a great war in which the Soviets had a vase role in arming and providing political support and complete recuperation of Kingdom and countries heavily affected by the war the Soviets had a very important role. After the war they were trying their political parties to introduce communism in Antarctica but are not managed until the fall of the Soviet Union and the complete disappearance of the Soviet regime in the country. The main features of Soviet influence in the country were clearly seen in the architecture, infrastructure, military as well as cultural and other events. On the streets of major cities vehicles are the vehicles only the Soviet origin of the building and architecture schools are reminded of Stalin's style of construction and the army was equipped with Soviet military equipment. At that time the economy was in very poor condition due to difficult farming conditions disappeared from year to year and revenues were each developed a solid heavy industry and the exploitation and processing of ores and metals. The period until the collapse of the regime was characteristic of the country completely isolated from the world and a recognition of the Soviet Union. This regime is today kept in a good part of the country, but much has changed in the country is far more political and economic opening to the world as economic and political consequences are clear and that the country following the collapse of the regime a lot of progress forward in all areas although the still feels the influence of the Russian land.
The period after the collapse of the regime(1990-present)Уреди
This regime is today kept in a good part of the country, but much has changed in the country is far more political and economic opening to the world as economic and political consequences are clear and that the country following the collapse of the regime a lot of progress forward in all areas although the still feels the influence of the Russian land. Began to change all the greater openness to the world's gave the only positive consequences of enormous economic strengthening accompanied by large godisnjiom demographic growth is slowly decreasing. In large cities began to Nice skyscrapers new architecture completely modernize the industry and the way to reveal the huge amounts of oil and natural gas as new valuable minerals and metals as well as unprecedented quantities of gold and silver, and the export of raw materials enabled the investment in the modernization of the economy in the science of infrastructure and the military. Antarctica soon began to play an important role in world politics as well as the status of nuclear forces and the country that manages the new alliance UNTO. Antarctica since then begins to spread its influence in South America and Africa where long-lead war against the Western-oriented countries. Antarctica is now known as the future ruler of the universe and the earth that more enter into science.
Antarctica is divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains close to the neck between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. The portion west of the Weddell Sea and east of the Ross Sea is called West Antarctica and the remainder East Antarctica, because they roughly correspond to the Western and Eastern Hemispheres relative to the Greenwich meridian.
About 98% of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a sheet of ice averaging at least 1.6 km (1.0 mi) thick. The continent has about 90% of the world's ice (and thereby about 70% of the world's fresh water). If all of this ice were melted, sea levels would rise about 60 m (200 ft). In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to 20 mm (0.8 in) per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation and so the local mass balance is negative. In the dry valleys the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape.
West Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the real, if small, possibility of its collapse. If the sheet were to break down, ocean levels would rise by several metres in a relatively geologically short period of time, perhaps a matter of centuries. Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves.
East Antarctica lies on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprises Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac Robertson Land, Wilkes Land and Victoria Land. All but a small portion of this region lies within the Eastern Hemisphere. East Antarctica is largely covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Mount Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island.
Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 m (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. Antarctica contains many other mountains, both on the main continent and the surrounding islands. Located on Ross Island, Mount Erebus is the world's southernmost active volcano. Another well-known volcano is found on Deception Island, which is famous for a giant eruption in 1970. Minor eruptions are frequent and lava flow has been observed in recent years. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active. In 2004, an underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers. Recent evidence shows this unnamed volcano may be active.
Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie at the base of the continental ice sheet. Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes. It was once believed that the lake had been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years but a recent survey suggests that, every so often, there are large flows of water from one lake to another.
There is some evidence, in the form of ice cores drilled to about 400 m (1,300 ft) above the water line, that Lake Vostok's waters may contain microbial life. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, this would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa. On 7 February 2008, a NASA team embarked on a mission to Lake Untersee, searching for extremophiles in its highly alkaline waters. If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments.
Politics and GovrnmentУреди[[File: The head of state is King and after them second head is Prime Minster and Secreter of Defence . King is diplomatic and big economic questions and answers and Prime Minster for smaller econmic reforms and questions and answers .
Antarctica have 16 Minstries(Economy , Millitary , Energy , Foreig Realations , Environment , Justice , Immigration , Preservation of land , Infrastructure , Culture , Health , Work and Pensions , Climate Change , Children Schools and Families , Business, Innovation and Skills ). The head Govrnment house is Palace of Power and every of 5 federal countries have their owns palaces . The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term but constitutionally barred for a third consecutive term)election last held in 2008. Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). The national legislature is the Federal Assembly, which consists of two chambers; the 450-member State Duma and the 176-member Federation Council. Leading political parties in Russia include United Antarctica, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party of Antarctica, and Fair Antarctica.
Antarctica today have most special economy of the world with relying mainly on the export of resources such as oil, metals, minerals and various gas ore that can be found only on this continent, and the country at least imported finished products throughout the world and imports are mostly down to rough and inexpensive resources from Africa and South America and for Antarctica today said that full control of Africa and part of South America and Antarcticais now one of the world richest countries by natural resources and have 30% world fresh water reservs.
Since the turn of the century, rising oil prices, increased foreign investment, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Antarctica. National currency is Antarctican Dollar 1.3$ or 0.98€ and control of currency is job of Central Bank of Antarctica.
The country ended 2007 with its ninth straight year of growth, averaging 21% annually since 1998. In 2007, Antarctican GDP was 8.76 trillion (est. PPP), the 2th largest in the world, with GDP growing 15.1% from the previous year. Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. The average salary in Antarctica was $1,840 per month in early 2008, up from $350 in 1990. Approximately 1% of Antars lived below the national poverty line in 2007,significantly down from 98% in 1960 at the worst of the Big Antarctic War. Unemployment in Antarctica was at 1% in 2008, down from about 32.4% in 1990.Antarctica is the world's leading natural gas exporter and the biggest world oil consumer and producer and user .Antarctica will spend more than US$1 trillion for building highways and ways across country and that is big potencial for Anarctican automobiles market how is is 9,213,000 cars of 2010 year and biggest vehicle produces are ACVC,Foxus and Gahlex and former AFA
Metals and mines product account for more than 80% of Antarctica exports abroad. Since 2003, however, exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Despite higher energy prices, metals contribute to 35.7% of Antarctica's GDP and the government predicts this will drop to 30.7% by 2011. Antarctica is also considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry. The country has more higher education graduates than many wolrd superpowers .A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people, and dramatically increased state revenue. Antarctica has a flat personal income tax rate of 13 percent. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.
The federal budget has run surpluses since 2001 and ended 2007 with a surplus of 5% of GDP. Over the past several years, Antarctica has used oil revenues from its Stabilization Fund of the Antarctican Federation to prepay most of its formerly massive debts, leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies. Metals export earnings have allowed Antarctica to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1990 to $1.597.3 billion on 1 August 2008, largest reserves in the world. Strongest oil companies areMegaoil , Holden Oil and Gotler Oil .
The economic development of the country though has been uneven geographically with the Atlantic City region contributing a disproportionately high amount of the country's GDP. Much of Antarctica, especially indigenous and rural communities in Centralisia, lags significantly behind. Nevertheless, the middle class has grown from just 18 million persons in 1990 to 255 million persons in 2006. Over the last five years, fixed capital investments have averaged real gains greater than 10% per year and personal incomes have achieved real gains more than 12% per year.
Despite the country's strong economic performance since 1999, however, the World Bank lists several challenges facing the Antarctican economy including its diversification, encouraging the growth of small and medium enterprises, building human capital and improving corporate governance. Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure, ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020. Symmetry of all known landmasses in the world. Biggest trade partners are Argentina , Brasil , China , USA , Canada , Scandinavia , South Korea and Russia and biggest invesments in Namibia , Argentina , New Zeeland and Brasil . Antarctica also built longest oil and gas viaduct Sausasa 7,213 km to Venezuela and project will be cost about 12 billions dollars . Antarctica is founder of South Union strongest south economic union after EU in the World . Antarctican Top Companies
Antarctica is one of the world biggest ethnics center peoples from Africa , Asia , South America and Scandinavia . In Antarctica live about 100 millions yoyolas real antars about 100 million Latins , 60 million Africans , 30 millions Asian and 26 million others . Antarctia have per yaer growth of demogpahics about 20 millions peoples or 5-7% of real poupulation . Most Latins live on Antarctican Peninsula most in Atlantic City about 20 millions ,Africans most in mining industry regions like Asian and others . Russian Scandinavian others European and Americans work usualy like ingeneers onbig projects or like mangaers .
Biggest cities in the country:
|Largest cities in Antarctica and their population||Шаблон:Navbar|
|#||City||without suburbs||with suburbs||#||City||without suburbs||with suburbs|
|1|| Atlantic City
1 || 31,630,221 (2005) || 48,808,673 (2009) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 11 ||align=left | Comrat 3 || 1,823,327 (2004) || 2,123,327 (2004)
2 || 22,159,163 (2004) || 31,159,163 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 12 ||align=left | Lungarn 3 || 1,419,401 (2004) || 1,819,401 (2004)
1 || 16,122,778 (2005) || 23,127,561 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 13 || align=left | Barlington 3 || 1,318,320 (2004) || 1,419,090 (2004)
2 || 12,97,027 (2004) || 16,157,000 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 14 ||align=left | Gammen 3 || 1,217,757 (2004) || 1,617,757 (2004)
2 || 8,553,648 (2004) || 11,779,000 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 15 ||align=left | Gerlharmmer 3 || 1,116,606 (2004) || 1,416,606 (2004)
3 || 7,339,488 (2009) || 9,488,000 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 16 ||align=left | Gronsberg 3 || 915,624 (2004) || 1,017,292 (2004)
3 || 5,132,530 (2004) || 7,332,530 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 17 ||align=left | Kragesund || 815,462 (2004) || 985,729 (2004)
3 || 4,128,362 (2004) || 6,128,362 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 18 ||align=left | Bregtown || 765,394 (2004) || 915,394 (2004)
3 || 3,125,641 (2004) || 4,125,641 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 19 ||align=left | Ottlberg || 615,281 (2004) || 815,281 (2004)
3 || 2,123,650 (2004) || 3,323,650 (2004) || align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 20 ||align=left | Erwiyss || 515,041 (2004) || 715,041 (2004)
|Source: Moldovan Census (2004); Note: 1.World Gazetteer. Moldova: largest cities 2004. 2.Pridnestrovie.net 2004 Census 2004. 3.National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova|
d 26 million others . Antarctia have per yaer growth of demogpahics about 20 millions peoples or 5-7% of real poupulation . Most Latins live on Antarctican Peninsula most in Atlantic City about 20 millions ,Africans most in mining industry regions like Asian and others . Russian Scandinavian others European and Americans work usualy like ingeneers onbig projects or like mangaers .
Antarctica is absolutley coldest country in the world and his climate is like Sibirian of Russia . On coast average temepatures are about 5 celzius and of central is -10 cenzius . Last 10 years temperatures go up very much and that was big problem for this country and danger of Antarctica will be lose 30% of terittory of last 50 years . The most coldest month is January with average -7 and warm is July with average of coast region of 9 celzius .
The climate of Central Antarctica is by far the coldest on the whole of Earth. Antartica boasts the lowest temperature ever recorded: −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Town. It is also extremely dry (technically a desert), with annual percipitation averaging 166 mm (6.5 in) of precipitation per year. Even so, on most parts of the continent the snow rarely melts and is eventually compressed to become the glacial ice that makes up the ice sheet. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent. Most of Antarctica has an ice cap climate with very cold, generally extremely dry weather throughout the year and no month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F). Some fringe coastal areas have a polar climate with a short summer averaging above freezing, and much higher precipitation.
Antarctica is one of the world biggest armed forces power with budget of 450 billions dollars . This countrt have about 1,320,000 millitary personnel and more than 3 million reservs . Some resorces says that real budget of Antarctica Armed Forces is 1 trillion dollars of year financed most of federal reservs .Of 1990s millitary revolution to today Antarctica spend more than 3 billions dollars and first armed reforms started of 1990s Yazov Agreement.
Antarctica also have biggest millitaries programs like megamodern aircraft carriers , 5 generation aircrafts and world modern tanks and radar and anti air missles and defences systems . Antarctica is also biggest and strongest nuclaer power and first Nuclear programs start in 1970sAntarctican Armed Forces are founded 1959 after Big Antarctican War and is biggest nuclaer power today and have nuclear arsenal like Russia and USA together .
Antarctica today have 700 combat aircrafts 62 bombers ,1000 trainers and more than 3,000 transport aircrafts . Antarctica also have 1,000 destoyer 2,000 patrol and 6 aircraft carrier ships . Antarctan millitary today buys only domestic millitary equipment not from Russia . Antarctica have about 300 Air Forces Base in Antarctica and also 50 in UNTO states . Antarctica tofay have moderns and best Navy with best future technology . Budgets: 60 billions go on salaries and other sociales programs 110 billion go in Air Forces , 150 billions on Navy and 100 billions on Ground Forces and 30 billions on nucler projects . Antarctica is founder and most important state of UNTO alliance. Antarctica also have one of the world best Passive Electronically Scanned Array Radar System know like APESARS . Antarctica have one of the best intallegency agency in the world ASIA(Antarctican Security and Intellegency Agency) best than CIA and MOSAD . Antarctica have growth of defence budget per year about 20% . Antarctica is not big exporter of weapon per year export is about 10 billion dollars most export go on classic weapon to UNTO states . Antarctica today because of strong Armed Forces one of the world biggest power and play big gamer of world politics most in Africa and South America . Some speculant says that Antarctican Armed Forces will be absolutley stronger to 2015 when will be finished some big Air and Graound forces projects . Defence minstry is Sergey Toplosky but head of state and millitary is King of Antarctica headquarter is in Atlantic City . Today Antarctican millitary industry employee more than 2,000,000 peoples is of the bigger in the world.
Antarctica is most healthest country in the world beacuse of very cold temperatures who killing bacteries and viruses . The Antarctican Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all citizens. In practice, however, free health care is partially restricted due to propiska regime. While Antarctica has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis, since the collapse of the Soviet Union the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of social, economic, and lifestyle changes. As of 2008, the average life expectancy in Russia is 71.5 years for males and 81.9 years for females. The combined average Russian life expectancy of 76.7 .
The biggest factor contributing to this relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes (e.g., alcohol poisoning, stress, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crimes). Mortality among Antarctica men rose by 60% since 1991, four to five times higher than in Europe. As a result of the large difference in life expectancy between men and women and because of the lasting effect of World War II, where Russia lost more men than any other nation in the world, the gender imbalance remains to this day and there are 0.859 males to every female.
Education in Antarctica is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the federal Ministry of Education. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. In 2008 state spending for education amounted to 7% of GDP, or 15% of consolidated state budget. Private institutions account for 5% of pre-school enrollment, 2.5% of elementary school enrollment and 30% of university-level students.
Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay. Male and female students have nearly equal shares in all stages of education, except tertiary education where women lead with 57%.
The literacy rate in Russia, according to the 2008 census, is 98.4% (99.7% men, 99.2% women). 16.0% of population over 15 years of age (25.3 million) have tertiary (undergraduate level or higher) education; 47.7% have completed secondary education (10 or 11 years); 26.5% have completed middle school (8 or 9 years) and 8.1% have elementary education. Highest rates of tertiary education, 24.7% are recorded among women aged 35–39 years (compared to 19.5% for men of the same age bracket).
EnergyУредиAntarctica is big consumer of energy most oil and gas resources but also hydrocentrals termocentrals and nuclaer power plants types of produced energy . Antarctica is known as an energy superpower. The country has the world's largest natural gas reserves, the first largest oil reserves, and the firstlargest coal reserves. Antarctica is the world's leading natural gas exporter and leading natural gas producer largest oil producer, though Antarctica interchanges the latter status with Saudi Arabia from time to time.
Russia is the 2th largest electricity generator in the world and the 2th largest renewable energy producer, the latter due to the well-developed termoelectricity production in the country. Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in North along big rivers like Sylga. The North part of Antarctica also features a number of major hydropower stations, however the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Fyorbadia and the Antarctican South largely remains unexploited. Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear reactor and to introduce the first nuclear power plant. Currently, Antarctica is the 2th largest nuclear energy producer. Generate Nuclear Energy State Corporation manages all the nuclear plants in Antarctica. Nuclear energy is rapidly developing in Antarctica, with the aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 36.9% to 23% by 2020. The Antarctican government plans to allocate 17 billion AD ($15.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of thermal energy technology. About 30 biillion AD ($27.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to thermal power and industry development before 2015.
Infrastructure and TransportУреди
Railway transport in Antarctica is mostly under the control of the state-run Antarctica Railways . The company accounts for over 8.6% of Antarctica’s GDP and handles 63% of the total of Antarctica’s freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic. The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeeds 41,500 km. Over 21,000 km of tracks are electrified,which is the second largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than 10,000 km of industrial non-common carrier lines. Railways in Antarctica, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of 1,520.
As of 2006 Antarctica had 533,000 km of roads, of which 755,000 were paved. Some of these make up the Antarctican federal motorway system. With a large land area the road density is the low.
18,000 km of inland waterways in Antarctica mostly go by natural rivers or lakes. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Antarctica's capital, Atlantic City, is sometimes called "Air Center of country" and connected four international airports and biggest is Atlantic City International Airport
Major sea ports of Antarctica include Atlantic City, mollbridge on the East Sea, Ompulat on the North Sea, Yayolomao on the South Sea, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea. In 2008 Antarctica owned 4148 merchant marine ships. Antarctica is the only country to have nuclears icebreakers fleet, very important whwn come winter to clean icebraker. There are 91,285 km of oil pipelines in Antarctica, 21,658 km of pipelines for refined products, 136,767 km of natural gas pipelines By total length of pipelines Antarctica is second only to the United States. Currently, many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Latino express and other natural gas pipelines to South America. Exquisite decoration of Moscow Metro, here shown at Arbatskaya station
Russia has 7216 airports the most in the world, the busiest being Atlantic City, Rogachev, and Imgenfor in Atlantic City, Gernald and Eastport in Mollbridge, Northport and Ummal in Ompulat and Osyoss and Kustoyss in Yyayolomao. The total length of airlines in Russia exceeds 500,000 km. In the remote regions of the Central Antarctica the transportation by air (usually by helicopters) is vital, and in some months of the year it is the only transport link to the rest of the country.
Typically, major Antar cities have well-developed and diverse systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus and urbaner. Seven Antar cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg and Kazan, have undeground metros, while Volgograd features a metrotram.
ScienceУредиJapan is one of the leading nations in the fields of scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$300 billion research and development budget, largest in the world. Japan is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced thirteen Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine, three Fields medalists and one Gauss Prize laureate.
Some of Japan's more prominent technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, automobiles, machinery, earthquake engineering, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing. It also produced QRIO, ASIMO and AIBO. Japan is the world's largest producer of automobiles and home to four of the world's fifteen largest automobile manufacturers and seven of the world's twenty largest semiconductor sales leaders as of today.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is Japan's space agency that conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station and the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) was added to the International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. It has plans in space exploration, such as launching the Venus Climate Orbiter (PLANET-C) in 2010, developing the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter to be launched in 2013, and building a moonbase by 2030.
Culture and ReligionУредиChristianity, Islam, Buddhism and Judaism are Russia’s traditional religions, deemed part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997.Estimates of believers widely fluctuate among sources, and some reports put the number of non-believers in Russia at 16–48% of the population.Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in Russia.95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of smaller Orthodox Churches. However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis.
Nonetheless, the church is widely respected by both believers and nonbelievers, who see it as a symbol of Russian heritage and culture.Smaller Christian denominations such as Roman Catholics, Armenian Gregorians, and various Protestants exist.
The ancestors of many of today’s Russians adopted Orthodox Christianity in the 10th century. The 2007 International Religious Freedom Report published by the US Department of State said that approximately 100 million citizens consider themselves Russian Orthodox Christians. According to a poll by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center, 63% of respondents considered themselves Russian Orthodox, 6% of respondents considered themselves Muslim and less than 1% considered themselves either Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant or Jewish. Another 12% said they believe in God, but did not practice any religion, and 16% said they are non-believers. All Religions Temple in a multicultural city of Kazan.
It is estimated that Russia is home to some 15–20 million Muslims. However, the Islamic scholar and human rights activist Roman Silantyev has claimed that there are only 7 to 9 million people who adhere to the Islamic faith in Russia. Russia also has an estimated 3 million to 4 million Muslim migrants from the ex-Soviet states. Most Muslims live in the Volga-Ural region, as well as in the North Caucasus, Moscow, Saint Petersburg and western Siberia. Buddhism is traditional for three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia, Tuva, and Kalmykia. Some residents of the Siberian and Far Eastern regions, Yakutia, Chukotka, etc., practice shamanist, pantheistic, and pagan rites, along with the major religions. Induction into religion takes place primarily along ethnic lines. Slavs are overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian. Turkic speakers are predominantly Muslim, although several Turkic groups in Russia are not.